A B C
D E F G
H I J K L M N
O P Q R S
T U V W
X Y Z
DAB. To surface a stone with a pointed tool.
DAMP COURSE. A course or layer of impervious material which prevents
capillary entrance of moisture from the ground or a lower course.
DAMPROOFING. Prevention of moisture penetration by capillary
DIMENSION STONE. Stone that is selected for or trimmed or cut
to desired shapes and/or sizes. Used as building stone, markers, paving
blocks or flagging, curbing, cut or carved ornaments and novelties,
furniture (e.g., tabletops, laboratory bench tops and sinks), and industrial
equipment that requires stone in shaped form (e.g., pebble mills or
DIMENSIONS OF MASONRY UNITS. For masonry units, dimensions are
normally given thickness first, height second, and length third.
DOG'S TOOTH. Brick laid with their corners projecting from the
DOLOMITE. 1. Mineral form of calcium-magnesium carbonate. Constituent
of some building limestones. 2. Limestone consisting principally of
the mineral dolomite.
DOLOMITIC LIME. A trade term for high-magnesium lime. Also a
misnomer as the product does not contain dolomite.
DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE. Limestone that contains more than ten percent
but less than eighty percent of the mineral dolomite.
DOVETAIL ANCHOR. A splayed tenon that is shaped like a dove's tail,
that is broader at its end than at its base and that fits into the recess
of a corresponding dovetail slot.
DOWELS. Spliced reinforcement bars where continous bars are not
DRAFT. Tooled border around the face of a stone cut approximately
to the width of the chisel. Also called a margin draft.
DRESSED STONE. Stone that has been worked to its desired shape
and that has had its exposed face smoothed.
DRIP. Groove or slot cut beneath and slightly behind the forward
edge of a projecting stone member, such as a sill, lintel, or coping,
to cause rainwater to drip oft and prevent it from penetrating the wall.
DRY MASONRY. Masonry work laid without mortar.
DRY MORTAR. A mortar in which the constituents are so proportioned
that it is markedly stiffer than usual, yet has sufficient water for
DRY PACK. Amixture of portland cement and fine aggregate, earth-moist
dampened, but not to the extent that it will flow. Usually 1 part portland
cement, 3 parts sand.
DRY-PRESS BRICK. Brick formed in molds under high pressure from
relative dry clay powder.
DRY WALL. A self-supporting rubble or ashlar wall laid up without
DUTCHMAN. 1. A small piece of stone inserted as a filler in a
patched area on a larger piece of dimension stone. 2. A small piece
of stone inserted in an ashlar wall.
ECCENTRICITY. The normal distance between the centroidal axis of
a member and the parallel resultant load. (UBC)
EDGESET. A brick set on its narrow side instead of on its flat
EDGESTONE. Stone used for curbing.
EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. The height of a member to be assumed for calculating
the slenderness ratio. (UBC)
EFFECTIVE THICKNESS. The thickness of a member to be assumed
for calculating the slenderness ratio. (UBC)
EFFLORESCENCE. A deposit or encrustation of soluble salts, generally
white and most commonly consisting of calcium sulfate, that may form
on the surface of stone, brick, concrete, or mortar when moisture moves
through and evaporates on the masonry. Often caused by free alkalies
leached from mortar, grout, adjacent concrete, or in clays.
EMPIRICAL DESIGN. A design based on the application of physical
limitations learned from experience or observations gained through experience,
without a structural analysis.
ENCLOSURE WALL. An exterior nonbearing wall in skeleton frame
ENGINEERED DESIGN. A design based on a rational analysis, which
takes into account the interrelationship of the various construction
materials, their properties, and actual design loads, in lieu of empirical
ENTABLATURE. In classical architecture, the elaborated beam member
carried by the columns, horizontally divided into architrave (below),
frieze, and cornice (above).
ENTASIS. Intentional slight convex curving of the side profiles
in a tapered column to over come the optical illusion of concavity that
characterizes straight-sided columns.
EPOXY JOINT. A visible joint filled with epoxy resin adhesive
in place of mortar or caulking.
EPOXY WELD. In cut stone fabrication, a joint at an inside angle
that is cemented by an epoxy resign to form an apparent single unit.
EXFOLIATION. Peeling or scaling of stone or clay brick surfaces
caused by chemical or physical weathering. (Also called flaking)
EXPANSION BOLT. An anchoring device (based on a friction grip)
in which an expandable socket swells, causing a wedge action, as a bolt
is tightened into it.
EXPANSION JOINT/CONTRACTION JOINT. Joint or space to allow for
movement due to temperature or seismic changes and/or material conditions.
EXTERIOR WALL. See wall.
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