A B C
D E F G
H I J K L M N
O P Q R S
T U V W
X Y Z
CALCITE. A mineral form of calcium carbonate. Principle constituent
of most limestones.
CALCITE STREAK. A former fracture or parting (in lime-stone)
that has been recemented and annealed by the deposition of obscure white
or light-colored calcite.
CALCIUM CHLORIDE. (CaCl2)
Mortar accelerator used as cold weather admixture.
CALCIUM SILICATE BRICK. A sand-lime brick (ASTM C73.)
CAMBER. A slight arching or upward curve of a beam or softit.
CANOPY. A shallow projecting roof, bracketed or cantilevered,
ornamenting a doorway, window, niche, or throne.
CANTILEVER. A structural member, supported at only one end, that
projects from a support.
CAP. Masonry units laid on top of a finished wall.
CAPACITY INSULATION. The ability of masonry to store heat as
a result of its mass, density and specific heat. See also storage
CAPITAL. An intermediate member between the shaft of a column
or pier and a beam, arch, or vault, usually ornamented by molding or
carving or both.
CAPSTONE. Any single unit of masonry at the top of a masonry structure.
CARVED WORK. In stonework, hand cutting or ornamental features
for which the lines cannot be applied from a pattern.
Carver. The artisan who does carved work.
CARYATID. A supporting member, serving the function of a pier, column,
or pilaster, and carved or molded in the form of a draped human female
CAST STONE. A precast building material manufactured from concrete.
CAVITY WALL. Masonry type of construction made with brick, structural
clay tile or concrete masonry units or any combination of such units
in which facing and backing are completely separated except for the
metal ties which serve as bonding. (UBC)
C/B RATIO. The ratio of the weight of water absorbed by a masonry
unit during immersion in cold water to weight absorbed during immersion
in boiling water. An indication of the probable resistance of brick
to freezing and thawing. Also called saturation coefticient.
CELL. See core.
CENTERING. Temporary formwork for the support of masonry arches
or lintels during construction. Also called center(s).
CERAMIC COLOR GLAZE. An opaque colored glaze of satin or gloss
finish obtained by spraying the clay body with a compound of metallic
oxides, chemicals and clays. It is burned at high temperatures, fusing
glaze to body making them inseparable. (ASTM C126.)
CHAMFER. Bevel on corner or edge. A groove or channel.
Chamfered Rustication. Rustication in which stones are deeply
beveled where they join to an internal angle, so that where the two
stones meet the chamfering forms an internal right angle.
CHASE. A continuous recess built into a wall to receive pipes,
CHASE BONDING. Joining old masonry work to new by means of a
bond having a continous vertical recess the full height of the wall.
CHIMNEY. A hollow shaft containing one or more passageways. vertical
or nearly so, for conveying products of combustion to the outside atmosphere.
Chimney Breast. The projection of the interior or exterior face
of a wall caused by fireplaces or flues.
Chimney Connector. The pipe or breeching which connects a fuel
burning appliance to a chimney. (Uniform Mechanical Code.)
Chimney Liner. A lining material of fireclay or other approved
material that meets the requirements of Standard No. 37-1. UBC.
Chimney Throat. That part of a chimney directly above the fireplace
where the walls are brought close together.
CLEANOUT HOLES. Openings in the first course of masonry for cleaning
mortar droppings prior to grout placement in grouted masonry. High lift
grouting may be required.
CLEAR CERAMIC GLAZE. Same as Ceramic Color Glaze except that
it is translucent or slightly tinted, with a gloss finish.
CLEAVAGE. In rocks, a tendency to split (cleave) along parallel
and generally closely spaced surfaces caused by planar orientation of
mineral constituents. True cleavage surfaces are unrelated to original
stratification, but the term is also loosely used in some stone industries
for splitting along the depositional layering.
CLINKER. A very hard burned brick whose shape is distorted or
bloated due to nearly complete vitrification
CLIP. A portion of a brick cut to length.
CLOSER. The last masonry unit laid in a course. It may be whole
or a portion of the whole.
CLOSURE. Supplementary or short length units used at corners
or jambs to maintain bond patterns.
CMU. See Concrete Masonry Unit.
COBBLE. Naturally rounded rock fragment between (2-1/2 inches)
and (10 inches) diameter. Used for rough paving, walls, and foundation.
COLLAR JOINT. The vertical, longitudinal joint between wythes
COLUMN. A member with a ration of height-to-least-lateral dimension
of 3 or greater used primarily to support axial compressive load. (UBC)
COMPOSITE MASONRY. Multiple wythe construction in which at least
one of the wythes is dissimilar to the other wythe or wythes with respect
to type or grade of units or mortar.
CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT. Precast, hollow block or solid brick of concrete
conforming to ASTM C-90. See also concrete block.
Concrete Block. A hollow concrete masonry unit made from portland
cement and suitable aggregates such as sand, gravely crushed stone,
bituminous or anthracite cinders, burned clay or shale, pumic, volcanic
scoria, air-cooled or expanded blast furnace slags, with or without
the inclusion of other materials, conforming to Standard No. 24-3. UBC.
Return (or L) Corner Block. Concrete masonry unit designed for
corner construction for walls of various thicknesses.
Sash Block. Concrete masonry unit that has an end slot to receive
jambs of doors or windows.
Scored Block. Block with grooves that are in a visual pattern.
For example, the grooves may simulate raked joints. Usually available
in 1, 3, 5, or 7 score pattern.
Shadow Block. Block with a face formed in planes to develop surface
Sill Block. A solid concrete masonry unit used for the sills
Single Corner Block. Concrete masonry unit that has one flat
end. Used in the construction of an end or a corner of a wall.
Slump Block. Concrete masonry units (produced so that they "slump"
or sag in irregular fashion before they harden) used in masonry wall
Split Face Block. Concrete masonry unit with one or more faces
having a fractured surface. Used in masonry wall construction.
Concrete Brick. A solid concrete masonry unit made from portland
cement and suitable aggregates, with or without the inclusion of other
Coping Block. A solid concrete masonry unit for use as the top
and finished course in wall construction.
Faced Block. Concrete masonry units having a special ceramic,
glazed, plastic, polished, or ground face or surface.
Filler Block. Concrete masonry unit for use in conjunction with
concrete joists for concrete floor or roof construction.
Jamb Block. A block specially formed for the jamb of windows
or doors, generally with a vertical slot to receive window frames.
Lintel Block (or U-Block). A masonry unit consisting of one core
with one side open. (Usually placed with the open side up, like a trough,
to form a continous beam.)
Offset Block. A unit that is not rectangular in shape. Usually
made as a corner block to keep the construction modular.
Open End Block. A hollow unit, with one end closed and the opposite
end open, forming two cells when laid in the wall.
Pilaster Block. Concrete masonry units designed for use in the
construction of plain or reinforced concrete masonry pilasters and columns.
Sculptured Block. Block with specially formed surfaces, as a
CONTROL JOINT. Formed, sawed, or tooled in a masonry structure
to regulate the location and amount of cracking and seperation resulting
from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure, thereby
avoiding the development of high stresses.
COPING. The material or masonry units forming a cap or finish
on top of a wall, pier, pilaster, chimney. It protects masonry below
from penetration of water from above.
COQUINA. Coarse porous limestone composed of shells and shell
fragments loosely cemented by calcite.
CORBEL. A shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses
of masonry out from the face of the wall. (UBC)
Corbel Arch. Masonry built over a wall opening by uniformly projecting
from each side until the units meet at midpoint. No arch action is effected-not
a true arch.
Corbel Course. A masonry course acting as a corbel or as an ornament
of similar appearance.
Corbeled Vault. A masonry roof constructed from opposite walls
or from a circular base, by shifting courses slightly and regularly
inward until they meet. The resulting stepped surface may be smoothed
or curved, but no true arch action is involved.
CORE. A hollow space within a concrete masonry unit formed by
the face shells and webs. The holes in clay units. Also called a cell.
CORNERSTONE. 1.Generally a stone that forms a corner or angle
in a structure. 2. More specifically, a stone prominently situated near
the base of a corner in a building carrying in formation recording the
dedication dates and other pertinent information. In some buildings,
these stones contain or cap a vault in which contemporary memorabilia
CORNICE. The molding or series of moldings forming the top member
of a facade, door or window frame, or interior wall. Also the top member
of a classical entablature.
CORROSION RESISTANT. Metal that is treated or coated to retard
harmful oxidation or other corrosive action. An example is steel galvanized.
COURSE. One of the continous horizontal layers of units, bonded
with mortar in masonry.
COURSE BED. Specially placed stone, brick, or other building material
upon which other material is to be laid.
COURSE VENEER. In stone masonry, the use of veneer stones having
equal heights to form each continous course. Horizontal joints extend
the full length of any facade, but adjacent vertical joints are not
CRAMP. A U-shaped metal fastening to hold adjacent units of masonry
together, as in a parapet or wall coping, or to secure marble slab veneers
CROSS-BEDDING. In sedimentary rocks, inclined layers of sedimentation
resulting from the progressive deposition of granular materials over
a sloping surface. The layers are within a single bed between true bedding
planes. Cross-bedding lends textural and color pattern to building stone.
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF HOLLOW UNITS.
The total area including cells of a section perpendicuar to the
direction of loading. Reentrant spaces are included in the gross area,
unless these spaces are to be occupied in masonry by portions of adjacent
Net Cross-Sectional Area of Hollow Units.
The gross cross-sectional area of a section minus the average area
of ungrouted cores. (UBC).
CSI. Construction Specifications Institute.
CULLING. Sorting masonry units per size, color, and/or quality.
Culls. Masonry units which do not meet the standards or specifications
and have been rejected
CURBING. Tabular bodies of stone or concrete, straight or curved,
that are set on edge and form the upward vertical projection bordering
streets, sidewalks, or planted areas.
CURING. The maintenance of proper conditions of moisture and
temperature during initial set to develop required strength in concrete
CURTAIN WALL. A non-loadbearing exterior wall vertically supported
only at its base, or having bearing support at prescribed vertical intervals.
CUT STONE. Building stones cut to a specified size and shape.
Cutting Stock. Stone slabs of suitable size and thickness from
which cut stone units are fabricated.
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